Tuesday, October 1, 2013

Hydroelectric Power Plants and Power Generation

Hydroelectric Power Plants and Power Generation

19% of electricity produced on the Earth 's hydroelectric power plants is provided through . On the other hand, only 32 % hydropower potential in the world today fetched from used.
Hydro Power Principles

Hydropower , the potential energy of the water under reduced down to a certain height before and after the conversion of mechanical energy by means of a turbine -generator by means of mechanical energy to electrical energy conversion is based on. The amount of energy produced is directly dependent on two variables . The first " dream " katetttiği referred to as the vertical distance of the water . The second is the amount of water flow . In general, the preferred system is to provide the production of energy with high head .
Classification of Hydroelectric Power Plants

Possible to classify into 4 groups according to their board of hydroelectric power plants ;
Large-Scale Hydroelectric Power Plants

Over 10 MW installed capacity of these systems . 10 MW of power, each with 50W bulb, energy, equivalent to 200,000 . As an example, for a dwelling house to be needed by 2000 is assumed to be 5 kW electrical power electricity needs can be met . Is assumed to average five people live in a house , the force meet the electricity needs of a town with a population of 10,000 . Large-scale hydroelectric power plants such as coal and natural gas -based thermal power plants are classified in conventional power plants . Electric power generated by the electric energy produced in other power plants, given the national power grid .

Medium-sized Hydropower Plants

This is the power plants of 1 MW - 10 MW between. The energy obtained from medium-sized power plants and transmission lines, as well as local and national energy grid bind or a large enterprise in a residential area, can be used to meet energy needs . Evaluated with a capacity of 1 MW power from 200 1000nüfuslu meet the energy requirements of the house . Medium-sized power plants, hydroelectric power plants constitute the majority of the country .
Small-Scale Hydroelectric Power Plants

This 0.1 MW and 1 MW power plants are among the forces . Contribution to the national energy grid of these plants is low. Similar to the edges of streams mainly fish farms and small settlements have been established in order to meet the electricity needs . A total of 100 inhabitants of 20 houses with a force of 0.1 MW of energy needs can be met.
Micro -Scale Hydroelectric Power Plants

Micro -scale power plants on a small scale (up to 0.1 MW ) and do not provide the national electricity power line . These plants are usually away from the main residential areas , areas not reached the national energy grid is used. Powers , a small residential unit , the capacity to meet the basic needs of the production facility . Micro- hydro systems , demanding damages from power transmission lines affected by the winter months , with a low flow of streams can be disassembled at the end of the period faydalana more energy is needed only during the summer months , the central system installation cost , and it is difficult to meet the energy needs of the high plateaus and hamlets rather suitable.
Turbines and Generators

Two machines are mainly hydro- power generation , turbine and generator is based. Technology in the last 50 years, the basic principles have not changed much . The biggest development in the area of
​​efficiency . Water collected in the dam reservoirs or water conveyance tunnel translated into the bed through the regulator structures and / or channels are the central area . Here, water resistant to high pressure steel pipes , called penstocks of the turbine is located near the river bed . Divided into three different types according to the height of the turbines benefited dream .

Between 2 and 40 meters from the turbine is used for low- Type: Tiger

Kaplan turbine illustration
 


Between 10 and 350 meters from the turbine type is used for low- Francis undefined

Francis turbine installation:


Between 50 and 1300 meters from the turbine is used for low- Type: Pelton

Pelton turbine:

 

Water entering the turbine to rotate the turbine blades of the turbine multiplying . Turbines generally directly without a gearbox by means of a shaft connected to the generator . Rotating magnetic field in the generator, which is connected to the turbine shaft power is produced .

Shaft that connects the turbine and generator:

 

Thus, prior to potential energy to kinetic energy of the water , and then finally converted into electrical energy to mechanical energy . Switching field of energy produced and transmitted over high voltage transmission line transformers are made by editing . Then, with a national network in power lines is given.

Generator hall

 

Generator installation
 


The efficiency of the turbine - generator sets, with a maximum of 60-65 % of energy is produced by means of proportion. Turbine - generator sets, maintenance, inspection and measurement systems to the extent permitted efficient and nice. For this reason, digital automation systems , electrical and mechanical protection equipment during operation must necessarily be followed by the establishment of the system .

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